NPL's Photovoltaics team has more than a decade of experience in characterisation and testing for photovoltaics (PV) technologies. Our expertise spans from energy materials characterisation and metrology in the nanoscale, up to PV systems assessment and consultancy. Our multidisciplinary team has led and delivered multiple collaborative R&D projects in the area of PV technologies and has developed a number of novel techniques and bespoke instruments for PV materials, device and module characterisation. We offer a number of established and bespoke characterisation solutions.
Photovoltaic device characterisation capabilities:
Microscopy techniques for PV materials and devices:
- Raman spectroscopy
- Photoluminescence spectroscopy
- Advanced scanning probe microscopy.
- Atomic force microscopy (AFM) – topography
- Scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) - surface potential, or surface photovoltage
- Time resolved SKPM – time resolved photovoltage
- (photo-)conductive atomic force microscopy (pc-AFM, c-AFM) – (photo)current and local current-voltage (in dark or under illumination)
- Tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy (TEOS) -raman (TERS) and photoluminescence (TEPL).
Custom/bespoke measurements possible (e.g. in-situ studies, temperature control, measurements under controlled atmosphere such inert N2 and very low H2O)
Photovoltaics rating, modelling and system capabilities
- Uncertainty budgets of measurements
- Energy rating of photovoltaic modules and devices
- Albedo estimations for bifacial systems using satellite data sources
- Albedo on-site monitoring for bifacial systems consultancy