Measurement for Recovery - M4R
Measurement for Recovery - M4R

Graham Machin

Graham Machin

NPL Fellow

Professor Graham Machin, BSc (Hons), DPhil (Oxon), DSc FInstP, FInstMC, CEng, CPhys is an NPL Fellow and Science Area Leader for Thermometry. His team have made world-leading contributions to the redefinition of the kelvin (K), thermodynamic temperature measurement and the development of high temperature fixed points as next-generation temperature standards. In addition, his team have made numerous contributions to solving thermometry problems in harsh environments as diverse as aerospace, space, nuclear decommissioning and medical, and is working towards developing in-situ validation and no drift sensing thermometry techniques to facilitate autonomous production/Industry 4.0.

Areas of interest

As an acknowledged world leader in thermometry research, Graham and his team have made significant contributions to the science of temperature measurement. Recent highlights include:

  • One of the world’s lowest uncertainty evaluations of the Boltzmann constant for the kelvin redefinition
  • The world’s lowest uncertainty primary thermometry measurements below 303 K
  • Establishment of high temperature fixed points as the next generation temperature standards (for non-contact and thermocouple thermometry) and for the in-situ validation of temperature sensors
  • The use of novel thermometry techniques to measure surface temperatures that are traceable in a wide range of harsh environments
  • First traceable thermometry for flames and quantitative thermal imaging in a range of environments

In particular, Graham leads international efforts for implementing the redefined kelvin and through chairing the CCT Working Group in Non-Contact Thermometry for developing novel high temperature fixed points as new temperature standards. He pioneered self-validating capability for thermocouples (currently being commercialised under licence) and is currently leading the development of reliable thermal based metrology tools for reliable decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

Graham has a strong interest in clinical thermometry and his recent work includes leading an NIHR project for the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration (leading to a spin-out company). He is a founder member of the UK body temperature measurement initiative, whose aim is to prevent avoidable deaths throughout the health service due to misdiagnosed infections.


Graham joined the NPL Temperature and humidity group in 1991, after completing his DPhil at the University of Oxford. He has published over 210 papers and has given numerous invited lectures around the world.

Graham is the NPL representative on the BIPM Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT), chair of the CCT working group (WG) for non-contact thermometry and a member of the CCT WG on strategy. He is the immediate past chair of the EURAMET Technical Committee (TC) of Thermometry (2014–2018) and continues to serve on the TC-T Strategy Group. He has served on the council of the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC) (2013–2015), on the EPSRC Physical Sciences Advisory Team (2014–2017) as well as numerous International Programme Committees including the IMEKO World Congress 2018 and Tempmeko/Tempbejing 2019.

He holds visiting professorships at the University of South Wales, the University of Strathclyde and is 'Colaborador Honorifico' at the University of Valladolid. In 2012, he received the InstMC Callendar Medal for improvements in “the state of the art” in temperature measurement; and in 2015, a DSc from the University of Birmingham for 'Improvements in Temperature Measurement'.

In 2017, Graham was awarded a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Fellowship, in recognition of his decadal contributions to the science of thermometry and was made an Honorary Scientist of the CAS in 2019. Graham is the current President of the InstMC (2018-2019).

Read about Graham's main area of Temperature and humidity research

Email Graham Machin

Selected recent publications

Machin, G., Simpson, R., McEvoy, H., Whittam, A., “NPL contributions to the standardisation and validation of contemporary medical thermometry methods", Physiol. Meas. 40 05TR01 (2019)

Tucker, D., Andreu, A., Elliott, C., Ford, T., Neagu, M., Machin, G., Pearce, J., “Integrated self-validating thermocouples: with a reference temperature up to 1329 °C”, Meas. Sci. Technol. 29 105002 (2018)

Machin, G., “The Kelvin redefined”, Meas. Sci. Technol. 29 022001 (11pp) (2018)

Machin, G., Whittam, A., Ainarkar, S., Allen, J., Bevans, J., Edmonds, M., Kluwe, B., MacDonald, A., Petrova, N., Plassmann, P., Ring, F., Simpson, R. “A thermal imaging system for the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration”, Physiol. Meas. 38 420-430 (2017)

Machin, G., Anhalt, K., Battuello, M., Bourson, F., Dekker, P., Diril, A., Edler, F., Elliott, C., Girard, F., Greenen, A., Kňazovická, L., Lowe, D., Pavlásek, P., Pearce, J., Sadli, M., Strnad, R., Seifert, M., Vuelban E. M., “The research outcomes of the European Metrology Research Programme Project:  HiTeMS – High Temperature Measurement Solutions for Industry”, Measurement 78 p. 168–179 (2016)

Fellmuth, B., Fischer, J., Machin, G., Picard, S., Steur, P., Tamura, O., White, R., Yoon H., “The kelvin redefinition and its mise en pratique”, Phil. Trans R. Soc. A.  374: 20150037 (2016)

Sadli, M., Machin, G., Anhalt, K., Bourson, F., Briaudeau, S., del Campo, D., Diril, A.,  Lowe, D., Mantilla Amor, J. M., Martin, J.M., McEvoy, H., Ojanen, M., Pehlivan, O., Rougié, B., Salim S. G. R.., “Realisation and dissemination of thermodynamic temperatures above the silver point”, Phil. Trans R. Soc. A.  374: 20150043 (2016)

Anhalt, K., Machin, G., “Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry”, Phil. Trans R. Soc. A.  374: 20150041 (2016)

Machin, G., Engert, J., Gavioso, R., Sadli, M., Woolliams, E., “Summary of achievements of the EMRP project implementing the new kelvin (InK)”, Measurement 94 149-156 (2016)

Babourina-Brooks, B., Simpson, R., Arvanitis, T.N., Machin, G., Peet, A.C., Davies, N.P., “MRS thermometry calibration: Effects of protein, Ionic concentration and magnetic field strength”, NMR in Biomedicine, 28, 792-800, (2015)

View publications on ResearchGate