Decentralisation - Electricity generation will become widely distributed and a smart, secure and resilient network will be needed to exploit and smooth fluctuations in supply and demand.
Measurement will enable decentralisation, maximise efficiency and ensure an AI-enabled, smart grid infrastructure.
Examples include: small, portable and modular nuclear reactors, development of a diverse gas system infrastructure, increased use of hydrogen as a fuel or blended with natural gas, offshore wind and large-scale solar development, the use of networked batteries, microgeneration, hydrogen as a storage mechanism, portable power sources, supercapacitors.
Commercial - New business models for grid operation will emerge to balance supply and demand between consumers and a growing number of producer/consumers.
Measurement will be needed to ensure accurate and fair energy sale and purchase and enable demand-side response programmes.
Examples include: modelling and predicting of intermittent and distributed energy supply, improved conversion and storage management through smart grid technologies, new business models for energy sale and purchase.