National Physical Laboratory

Survey of procedures in use for permeability measurements in liquid composite moulding processes.

Aktas, A, Sims, G D, Lira, C*, Stojkovic, M*
NPL Report MAT 82, May 2016
NPL Doc. Ref:
PDB: 8016 | DDB: 7817
Document Type:
NPL Report

Note: An asterisk after an author's name indicates a non-NPL author.


This report presents the results of an international survey of permeability measurement procedures used to support development and use of liquid moulding processes. The purpose of the survey has been to collate information, identify measurement issues and generate a reference document for future international benchmarking, round-robin and standardisation activities. The survey results are representative and the number of respondents to the survey is satisfactory and of high quality, as sent to specific organisations that are expert in this measurement area.From the responses, all organisations conduct measurements based on Darcy's law, but using their in-house built test rigs and their own methodologies developed from many years of research in this field. In general, unsaturated (by monitoring pressure and flow front) and saturated (by monitoring pressure and flow rate) measurements are conducted. Currently, there are no measurement standards, standardised test rigs, standard reinforcement materials, or standard test fluids available. It is noted that model fluids are overwhelmingly used (c.f. resins, catalysed or uncatalysed)In parallel to this international permeability survey, the National Physical Laboratory and the National Composites Centre will integrate the survey responses and Benchmark procedure into a draft for future standardisation.

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