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The quantum Hall effect is used to define the metrological standard for electrical resistance in terms of the ratio of fundamental constants of nature, Planck’s constant (h) and the square of the elementary charge (e). Graphene supports the quantum Hall effect in much more relaxed conditions, higher temperature and lower magnetic field, than conventional semiconductors. Our push-button quantum Hall resistance standards with graphene at their heart will be used in industry to create more accurate electronic components.
Find out more about NPL's Table-top quantum Hall (TTQH) instrument
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