- Self-validating thermocouples are designed specifically to allow in-situ validation, where removal of the thermocouple is impractical and the exposed temperature is or can be cycled through a fixed point phase transition. Working prototypes are in use and development of industrially-applicable pieces is ongoing.
- NPL is making fixed-points based on metal-carbon eutectic alloys that can provide reference points with a certified uncertainty of 0.05% of the ITS-90 temperature. NPL is coordinating a global research programme to introduce these reference standards for better temperature and optical radiation measurements.
- Practical Acoustic Thermometry is a novel technique for measuring the temperature, particularly suited to measurements in harsh conditions at high temperatures.
- NPL is embarking on a project to use primary acoustic gas thermometry to measure thermodynamic temperature in the range from – 40 °C to + 156 °C. This will provide new knowledge about the thermodynamic accuracy of the ITS-90, and in the longer term it will provide NPL with a capability for the direct dissemination of thermodynamic temperature over a wider range.
- Metal-carbon eutectic alloy fixed-points constructed at NPL provide temperature reference standards up to 2500 °C for radiation thermometry.
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