National Physical Laboratory

Temperature & Humidity Publications & Guides

Our experts have written many guidance documents and research papers, making influential scientific and strategic contributions to the field.

To find a specific NPL publication, please use the NPL Publications Search

Key publications


A European roadmap for thermometry
Machin, G., Bojkovski, J., del Campo, D., Dogan, A.K., Fischer, J., Hermier, Y., Merlone, A., Nielsen, J., Peruzzi, A., Ranostaj, J., Strnad R.,
Int. J. Thermophys., 35, pp 385-394 (2014) doi: 10.1007/s10765-013-1554-4

Report of the new Kelvin dissemination workshop: 27-28 Oct 2010
Machin, G., del Campo, D., Fellmuth, B., Fischer, J., Gavioso, R., Lusher, C., Merlone, A., Mills, I., Pitre, L., de Podesta, M.
Metrologia, 48, pp 68-69 (2011)

Practical implementation of the Mise en Pratique for the definition of the kelvin above the silver point
Machin, G., Bloembergen, P, Anhalt, K., Hartmann, J., Sadli, M., Saunders, P., Woolliams, E.,Yamada, Y., Yoon, H.
Int. J. Thermophys 31, pp 1779-1788 (2010) doi:10.1007/s10765-010-0834-5

A roadmap for humidity and moisture measurement
Bell, S., Benyon, R., Böse, N., Heinonen, M.
TEMPMEKO 2007, Int. J. Thermophys., 29 (5) pp 1537-1543 (2007) doi:10.1007/s10765-008-0419-8

Non-contact Thermometry

Estimation of the degree of equivalence of the ITS-90 above the silver point between NPL, NIM and CEM using high temperature fixed points
Machin, G., Dong, W., Martín, M. J., Lowe, D., Yuan, Z., Wang, T., Lu, X.
Metrologia, 48, pp 196-200 (2011) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/48/3/014

Evaluation of methods for characterizing the melting curves of a high temperature cobalt-carbon fixed point to define and determine its melting temperature
Lowe, D., Machin, G.
Metrologia, 49, p 189 (2012) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/49/3/189

Reproducible metal-carbon eutectic fixed-points
Lowe, D., Yamada, Y.
Metrologia, 43, p 135 (2006) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/43/2/S27

Contact Thermometry

Pt/Pd thermocouple resilience over 327 operating hours in an industrial calibration laboratory
Elliott, C J, Pearce, J V, Machin, G, Ford, T, Hicks, K
AIP Conf. Proc., 1552, pp 549-553 (2013)

Self-validating type C thermocouples to 2300 °C using high temperature fixed points
Pearce, J V, Elliott, C J, Machin, G, Ongrai, O
AIP Conf. Proc., 1552, pp 595-600 (2013)

Impurity and thermal modelling of SPRT fixed-points
J. V. Pearce, R. I. Veltcheva, and M. J. Large
AIP Conference Proceedings, 1552, p 283 (2013) doi: 10.1063/1.4819554


CCT K6 key comparison in dew-point temperature
Bell S. et al
Metrologia, 52, 03005 (2015) doi:10.1088/0026-1394/52/1A/03005

A calibration facility for dew point in air up to 1 MPa
Carroll P.A., Bell S.A., Stevens M.
TEMPMEKO 2013, Int. J. Thermophys., 36, pp 1-13 (2015) doi:10.1007/s10765-015-1984-2

Non-destructive moisture content measurement of bioabsorbable polymers used in medical implants
Carroll, P. A., Bell, S. A., Maxwell, A. S., Tomlins, P. E.
Proceedings of TEMPMEKO & ISHM 2010, Int. J. Thermophys. (published online 1 May 2011) doi:10.1007/s10765-011-0981-3

A trial intercomparison of humidity generators at extremes of range using relative humidity transmitters
Stevens M., Benyon R., Bell S., Vicente T.
TEMPMEKO 2007, Int. J. Thermophys., 29 (5), pp 1685-1695 doi: 10.1007/s10765-008-0493-y (2008)

Uncertainty analysis for the droplet method of water vapour flux calibration
Bell S.A., Gee R.M., Imhof R.E., Stevens M., Xiao P (and the TEWL calibration consortium)
Proceedings of ISHM 2006 (5th International Symposium on Humidity and Moisture May 02 – 05), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2006)


Beginner's Guide to Measurement
Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement
Guide to the Measurement of Humidity
Introduction to Temperature Measurement

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