National Physical Laboratory

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 

NPL's XPS instrument can offer the following techniques:

  • X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Allows quantitative analysis of surfaces to 0.1% sensitivity. Elemental and chemical state information can be determined for elements (excluding H and He) with spatial resolution of a few micrometres. XPS finds strong applicability in catalysis, corrosion studies, organics, paints, polymers, adhesion studies as well as in the study of insulating samples such as ceramics and glasses. Recent studies have shown XPS to be a reliable and accurate method for measuring silicon dioxide thicknesses up to 8 nm on silicon wafers.

  • Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    Allows quantitative analysis of surfaces to 0.1% sensitivity. Elemental detection (excluding H and He) with spatial resolution of better than 0.1 micrometres. High resolution depth profiling. AES finds strong applicability in the areas of microelectronics, metallurgy and the analysis of thin films.

  • Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    Ultraviolet light is shone at the sample using a Helium lamp emitting at 21.2 eV (He I radiation) or 40.8 eV (He II radiation). The low photon energy in UPS means that deep core electron levels cannot be excited, and only photoelectrons emitted from the valence band or shallow core levels are accessible. Angle Resolved UPS (ARUPS) can be used to determine the band structure of the material under investigation. UPS can also be used to identify molecular species on surfaces by identifying characteristic electron energies associated with the bonds of the molecules.


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Last Updated: 6 Mar 2012
Created: 29 May 2009


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