National Physical Laboratory

Surface & Nanoanalysis Publications

We study the measurement of the physical and chemical properties of surfaces down to the nanoscale, from biological samples to electronic components.

Publications by the Surface & Nanoanalysis Group are listed below by year. If you would like to request PDF copies, please email


  1. The 3D OrbiSIMS–label-free metabolic imaging with subcellular lateral resolution and high mass-resolving power, M. K. Passarelli, A. Pirkl, R. Moellers, D. Grinfeld, F. Kollmer, R. Havelund, C. F Newman, P. S. Marshall, H. Arlinghaus, M. R. Alexander, A. West, S. Horning, E. Niehuis, A. Makarov, C. T. Doller and I. S. Gilmore, Nature Methods, 2017, 14, 1175–1183
  2. Mass spectrometry imaging identifies palmitoylcarnitine as an immunological mediator during Salmonella Typhimurium infection, H. E. Hulme, L. M. Meikle, H. Wessel, N. Strittmatter, J. Swales, C. Thomson, A. Nilsson, R. J. B. Nibbs, S. Milling, P. E. Andren, C. Logan Mackay, A. Dexter, J, Bunch, R. J. A. Goodwin, R. Burchmore and D. M. Wall, Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 2786
  3. Two-Phase and Graph-Based Clustering Methods for Accurate and Efficient Segmentation of Large Mass Spectrometry Images, A. Dexter, A. M. Race, R. T. Steven, J. R. Barnes, H. Hulme, R. J. A. Goodwin, I. B. Styles and J. Bunch, Analytical Chemistry, 2017, 89(21), 11293–11300
  4. Mass Spectrometry Imaging in Oncology Drug Discovery, R. J. A. Goodwin, J. Bunch and D. F. McGinnity, Advances in Cancer Research, 2017, 134, 133–171
  5. Raster-Mode Continuous-Flow Liquid Microjunction Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Proteins in Thin Tissue Sections, R. L. Griffiths, E. C. Randall, A. M. Race, J. Bunch and H. J. Cooper, Analytical Chemistry, 2017, 89(11), 5683–5687
  6. Top-Down LESA Mass Spectrometry Protein Analysis of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, K. I. Kocurek, L. Stones, J. Bunch, R. C. May, H. J. Cooper, Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2017, 28(10), 2066-2077
  7. Matrix Optical Absorption in UV-MALDI MS, K. N. Robinson, R. T. Steven and J. Bunch, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s13361-017-1843-4
  8. Enhancing Classification of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data with Deep Neural Networks, S. A. Thomas, Y. Jin, J. Bunch, I. S. Gilmore, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, 2017,
  9. Intracellular Drug Uptake: A Comparison of Single Cell Measurements Using ToF-SIMS Imaging and Quantification from Cell Populations with LC/MS/MS, C. F. Newman, R. Havelund, M. K. Passarelli, P. S Marshall, I. Francis, A. West, M. R. Alexander, I. S. Gilmore and C. T. Dollery, Analytical Chemistry, 2017, 89, 11944-11953
  10. Embedding-Free Method for Preparation of Cross-Sections of Organic Materials for Micro Chemical Analysis Using Gas Cluster Ion Beam Sputtering, I. Mihara, R. Havelund and I. S. Gilmore, Analytical Chemistry, 2017, 89, 4781–4785
  11. High-Resolution Sub-Cellular Imaging by Correlative Nanosims and Electron Microscopy of Amiodarone Internalisation by Lung Macrophages as Evidence for Drug-Induced Phospholipidosis, H. B. Jiang, M. K. Passarelli, P. M. G. Munro, M. R. Kilburn, A. West, C. T. Dollery, I. S. Gilmore, P. D. Rakowska, Chemical Communications, 2017, 53, 1506–1509
  12. Physical, chemical and electrical characterisation of the diffusion of copper in silicon dioxide and prevention via a CuAl alloy barrier layer system, C. Byrne, B. Brennan, R. Lundy, J. Bogan, A. Brady, Y.Y. Gomeniuk, S. Monaghan, P.K. Hurley and G. Hughes, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2017, 63, 227–236
  13. Structural, Chemical and Electrical Characterisation of Conductive Graphene-Polymer Composite Films, B. Brennan, S. J. Spencer, N. A. Belsey, T. Faris, H. Cronin, S. R. P. Silva, T. Sainsbury, I. S. Gilmore, Z. Stoeva and A. J. Pollard, Applied Surface Science, 2017, 403, 403–412
  14. Simultaneous Topographical, Electrical and Optical Microscopy of Optoelectronic Devices at the Nanoscale, N. Kumar, A. Zoladek-Lemanczyk, A. Gilbert, S. M. Tuladhar, T. Kirchartz, B. C. Schroeder, I. McCulloch, J. Nelson, D. Roy and F. A. Castro, Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 2723–2731
  15. Nanoscale mapping of newly-synthesised phospholipid molecules in a biological cell using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, N. Kumar, M. M. Drozdz, H. Jiang, D. M. Santos and D. J. Vaux, Chemical Communications, 2017, 53 (16), 2451–2454
  16. Molecular Mapping Beyond the Diffraction Limit using Tip-enhanced Optical Spectroscopy, N. Kumar and F. A. Castro, Imaging & Microscopy, 2017, 3, 34 – 36
  17. Dispersion of Nanomaterials in Aqueous Media: Towards Protocol Optimization, I. Kaur, L. Ellis , I. Romer, R. Tantra, M. Carriere, S. Allard, M. Mayne-L'Hermite, C. Minelli, W. Unger, A. Potthoff, S. Rades, and E. Valsami-Jones, Journal of Visualised Experiments, 2017
  18. Improved Metrological Traceability of Particle Size Values Measured with Line-Start Incremental Centrifugal Liquid Sedimentation, V. Kestens, V. A. Coleman, P. De Temmerman, C. Minelli, H. Woehlecke, and G. Roebben, Langmuir, 2017, 33 (33), 8213–8224
  19. Extreme mechanical reinforcement in graphene oxide based thin-film nanocomposites via covalently tailored nanofiller matrix compatibilization, T. Sainsbury, S. Gnaniah, S. J. Spencer, S. Mignuzzi, N. A. Belsey, K. R. Paton, and A. Satti, Carbon, 2017, 114, 367–376
  20. A simple approach to measuring thick organic films using the XPS inelastic background, A. G. Shard and S. J. Spencer, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2017, 49(12), 1256-1270
  21. Terminology: the first step towards international standardisation of graphene and related 2D materials, A. J. Pollard and C. A. Clifford, Journal of Materials Science, 2017,  52, 13685–13688
  22. Intervalley Scattering by Acoustic Phonons in Two-Dimensional Mos2 Revealed by Double-Resonance Raman Spectroscopy, B. R. Carvalho, Y. X. Wang, S. Mignuzzi, D. Roy, M. Terrones, C. Fantini, V. H Crespi, L. M. Malard and M. A. Pimenta, Nature Communications 2017, 8, 14670
  23. Summary of ISO/TC 201 Standard: ISO 11775: 2015-Surface Chemical Analysis Scanning Probe Microscopy - Determination of Cantilever Normal Spring Constants, C. A. Clifford, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2017, 49, 171-172
  24. Production of Few-Layer Graphene by Microfluidization, K. R. Paton, J. Anderson, A. J. Pollard and T. Sainsbury, Materials Research Express, 2017, 4, 025604
  25. Charaterisation of the structure of graphene, A. J. Pollard, K. R. Paton, C. A. Clifford and E. Legge, A. Oikonomou, S. Haigh, C. Casiraghi, L. Nguyen, D. Kelly, NPL Good Practice Guide 145, 2017, 1–78
  26. Improving the fracture toughness properties of epoxy using graphene nanoplatelets at low filler content, N. Domun, H. Hadavinia, T. Zhang, G. Lighat, S. Vahida, K. R. Paton, C. Spacie and T. Sainsbury, Nanocomposites, 2017, 3(3), 1–13
  27. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy  Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers, N. Domun, K. R. Paton, H. Hadavinia, T. Sainsbury, T. Zhang and H. Mohamud, MDPI Materials, 2017, 10(10), 1–17
  28. Bringing research to market, A. J. Pollard, Materials World, 2017, 2, 44–45
  29. Where is our wonder material?, A. J. Pollard, Laboratory News, 2017, 4, 27–29
  30. Quality for quantity, A. J. Pollard and R. Sundaram, Science and Technology, 2017, 24, 74–75
  31. ISO TS80004-13 Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary Part 13: Graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials, C. A. Clifford, A.  J. Pollard, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2017, 1–21
  32. Summary of ISO/TC 201 standard: ISO 19668—Surface chemical analysis—X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy— Estimating and reporting detection limits for elements in homogeneous materials, A. G Shard and C. A. Clifford, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2017, 50(1), 88–89


Please note that the information will not be divulged to third parties, or used without your permission