National Physical Laboratory

Graphene and 2D Materials Research Graphene and 2D Materials

Graphene research in the Quantum Detection team focuses on structural and functional engineering, physics and metrology of graphene, 2D materials and their heterostructures.

Graphene is a recently discovered carbon-based material only one (or a few) atom(s) thick.

In collaboration with our colleagues at NPL and beyond we deploy the arsenal of quantum metrology, functional scanning probe microscopy and nano-analysis to support the development and application of graphene electronic devices capable to sustain and extend performance scaling substantially beyond the fundamental limits of conventional technologies.

Graphene is hotly tipped to surpass conventional materials in many important applications, such as super-capacitors, ultrafast analogue transistors and touch-screen displays.

Metrology is called upon to underpin these developments. Today, graphene has already found an application in electrical metrology, where NPL and collaborators have demonstrated a graphene-based quantum Hall resistance standard superior to those based on silicon field-effect transistors and group III-V semiconductors presently used. The quantum Hall effect is a benchmark test of the material quality. Demonstration of the accurate and robust quantum Hall effect showed that graphene devices belong to the same elite club as silicon field-effect transistors and group III-V semiconductor heterostructures with a much longer development history.

Research

Tuning epitaxial graphene sensitivity to water by hydrogen intercalation   Tuning epitaxial graphene sensitivity to water by hydrogen intercalation
Microwave method for graphene quality control   Microwave method for graphene quality control
Self-supporting graphene films and their applications   Self-supporting graphene films and their applications
Probing interface structure of quasi-free standing graphene thumbnail [400x296/100x74]   Probing interface structure of quasi-free standing graphene
Effects of humidity on the electronic properties of graphene prepared by chemical vapour deposition [thumbnail 100x74]   Effects of humidity on the electronic properties of graphene prepared by chemical vapour deposition
Atmospheric doping effects in epitaxial graphene: correlation of local and global electrical studies   Atmospheric doping effects in epitaxial graphene: correlation of local and global electrical studies
Water affinity to epitaxial graphene: the impact of layer thickness [thumbnail]   Water affinity to epitaxial graphene: the impact of layer thickness
JT Janssen Table-top quantum Hall system successfully demonstrated
Is graphene hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Thickness-dependent hydrophobicity of graphene
Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties
Magnetic scanning probe calibration using graphene Hall sensors Magnetic scanning probe calibration using graphene Hall sensors
Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices
Local electric field screening in bi-layer graphene devices Local electric field screening in bi-layer graphene devices
Local nanoscale electrical measurements for graphene Local nanoscale electrical measurements for graphene
The design of a device overlaid on an optical image of a graphene sample - bilayer patches are clearly visible on monolayer background (image courtesy of Arseniy Lartsev, Chalmers University of Technology) Express tool for graphene quality control
Electron pumps made from graphene work ten times faster than similar pumps made from conventional three-dimensional materials and can be used to generate larger currents (image courtesy of Mike Connolly, NPL) First demonstration of single electron transport in graphene


People working on these projects

External collaboration

We collaborate with many world-leading research groups, but in particular:

Latest reviews

Latest publications

See Graphene and 2D Materials Research Publications for the full list of papers.

Latest invited, keynote and international presentations

  • TU Chemnitz invited seminar, Christos Melios, Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties, June 2016, Chemnitz, Germany
  • DTU invited seminar, Olga Kazakova, Studies of local electronic properties of graphene, April 2016, Lyngby, Denmark
  • Bruker Industrial Workshop, Christos Melios, Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: Kelvin microscopy studies, March 2016, Coventry, UK
  • University of Surrey EngD Conference, Christos Melios, Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties, October 2015, Guildford, UK
  • NT-MDT Workshop, Olga Kazakova, Environmental effects in graphene: local studies, September 2015, Dublin, Ireland
  • GraphITA 2015, Cristina Giusca, Water Affinity to Epitaxial Graphene: Impact of Layer Thickness, September 2015, Bologna, Italy
  • EMN Spain 2015, Olga Kazakova, Novel Graphene-based Nanosensors, September 2015, San Sebastian, Spain
  • University of Glasgow, Christos Melios, Carrier type inversion in quasi-free standing graphene: studies of local electronic and structural properties, August 2015, Glasgow, UK
  • IEEE IMWS-AMP, Ling Hao, Microwaves & Low Dimension Carbon: Characterisation and Applications, July 2015, Suzhou, China
  • IS2TOM, Ling Hao, Investigation of graphene topography and surface electrical properties, July 2015, Harbin, China
  • Harbin Institute of Technology, Ling Hao, Graphene measurement using microwave resonator, July 2015, Harbin, China

Current and previous major projects

Meet the QD Graphene team

Image gallery

  • Hall Voltage response to a magnetic force microscope probe.
     
  • Map showing a larger adhesion force on bi-layer than mono-layer epitaxial graphene, thus showing that bi-layer is more hydrophobic than mono-layer.
     
  • Operation of graphene quantum Hall resistance standard in a cryogen-free table-top system.
     
  • Surface potential map of mono-, bi- and tri-layer epitaxial graphene in vacuum.
     
  • Hall bar device fabricated out of mono- and bi-layer epitaxial graphene on SiC.
     
  • Surface potential image of H2-intercalated epitaxial graphene.
     
  • As-grown and quasi-free standing graphene on SiC illustration. Surface potential map overlaid on AFM topography.
     
  • Screening effect in bilayer graphene.
     

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