National Physical Laboratory

Electrochemistry Recent Publications

NPL's multi-disciplinary Electrochemistry team undertakes ground-breaking research in measurement and modelling of electrochemical and charge transfer processes.


Impact of surface condition on sulphide stress corrosion cracking of 316L stainless steel
G. Hinds, L. Wickström, K. Mingard, A. Turnbull
Corrosion Science, 72 (2013) 43

Environmentally assisted small crack growth
A. Turnbull, S. Zhou and M. Lukaszewicz
Procedia Material Science, 3 (2014) 204-208

Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth
A. Turnbull
Proc. Roy. Soc., A470 (2014) 20142041

The environmentally small/short crack growth effect
A. Turnbull
Corros. Rev., 30, pages 1-17 (2012)

Comparative evaluation of environment induced cracking of conventional and advanced steam turbine blade steels. Part 2: Corrosion fatigue
A. Turnbull and S. Zhou
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 503-512 (2011)

Sensitivity of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel to surface machining and grinding procedure
A. Turnbull, K. Mingard, J. D. Lord, B. Roebuck, D. Tice, K. Mottershead, N. Fairweather and A. Bradbury
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 3398-3415 (2011)

Novel images of the evolution of stress corrosion cracks from corrosion pits
D. A. Horner, B. J. Connolly, S. Zhou, L. Crocker, and A. Turnbull
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 3466-3485 (2011)

New insight into the pit-to-crack transition from finite element analysis of the stress and strain distribution around a corrosion pit
A. Turnbull, L. Wright and L. Crocker
Corros. Sci., 52, pages 1402-1498 (2010)

Novel multi-electrode test method for evaluating inhibition of underdeposit corrosion - Part 1: Sweet conditions
G. Hinds and A. Turnbull
Corrosion, 66, paper no. 046001 (2010)

Novel multi-electrode test method for evaluating inhibition of underdeposit corrosion - Part 2: Sour conditions
G. Hinds and A. Turnbull
Corrosion, 66, paper no. 056002 (2010)

Local hydrogen generation and its impact on environment-assisted cracking and crevice corrosion
A. Turnbull
Corrosion, 66, paper no. 055001 (2010)

Residual stress relaxation in shot-peened high strength low alloy steel and its implications for hydrogen assisted cracking
A. Turnbull and S. Zhou
Mat. Sci. Tech., 26, pages 824-836 (2010)


Current landscape of standardisation efforts in organic and printed electronics 2015 - a VAMAS review
Castro, F A
NPL Report MAT 73, April 2015

2D photocurrent and transmission mapping of aqueous dye sensitized solar cells
T.A.G. Risbridger, F.A. Castro, P.J. Cameron
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(42) (2012) 22253-22260

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces Using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
W. Kylberg, A. J. Wain, F.A. Castro
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116 (2012) 17384-17392

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116 (33), pp 17384-17392
DOI: 10.1021/jp304599v

Spatially resolved photocurrent mapping of efficient organic solar cells fabricated on a woven mesh electrode
W. Kylberg, F. A. Castro, P. Chabrecek, T. Geiger, J. Heier, P. G. Nicholson, F. Nuesch, E. Theocharous, U. Sonderegger, R. Hany
Progress in Photovoltaics, DOI: 10.1002/pip.1242

Oligothiophene dendron-decorated squaraine dyes: Synthesis, thin film formation, and performance in organic solar cells
W. Kylberg, Y. Zhang, A. Aebersold, F.A. Castro, T. Geiger, J. Heier, Simon Kuster, C.-Q. Ma, P. Bäuerle, F. Nüesch,J.-N. Tisserant, R. Hany
Organic Electronics 13, 1204-1212 (2012)

Challenges found when patterning semiconducting polymers with electric fields for organic solar cell applications
F. A. Castro, F. Nüesch, C. Walder, R. Hany
Journal of Nanomaterials, (2012) in press

Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends
A. Cuenat, A. Muñiz-Piniella, M. Muñoz-Rojo, W. C Tsoi, C. E Murphy
Nanotechnology 23, 045703 (2012)

Woven Electrodes for Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Cells
W. Kylberg, F. A. Castro, P. Chabrecek, U. Sonderegger, B. T. T. Chu, F. Nüesch and R. Hany
Advanced Materials, 23, pages 1015-1019 (2011)

Surface and subsurface morphology of operating nanowire:fullerene solar cells revealed by photoconductive-AFM
W.C. Tsoi, P. G. Nicholson, J-S. Kim, D. Roy, T. L. Burnett, C. E. Murphy, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, J-S. Kim, F.A. Castro
Energy & Environmental Science, 4, pages 3646-3651 (2011)

The nature of in-plane skeleton Raman modes of P3HT and their correlation to the degree of molecular order in P3HT:PCBM blend films
W. C. Tsoi, D. T. James, P. G. Nicholson, C. E. Murphy, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Nelson, J-S. Kim
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133, pages 9834-9843 (2011)

Effect of crystallisation on the electronic energy levels and thin film morphology of P3HT:PCBM blends
W. C. Tsoi, S. Spencer, L. Yang, P. Nicholson, A. Turnbull, A. Shard, C. E. Murphy, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Nelson, J-S. Kim
Macromolecules, 44, 8, pages 2944-2952 (2011)

Transport and interfacial transfer of electrons in dye-sensitized solar cells utilising a Co(dbbip)2 redox shuttle
H. Wang, P. G. Nicholson, L. Peter, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Graztel
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, pages 14300-14306 (2010)

Organic Photovoltaics: Principles and Techniques for Nanometre Scale Characterisation
P. G. Nicholson and F. A. Castro
Nanotechnology (Review), 21, pages 492001-492027 (2010)

Organic Electronics

Molecular relaxation temperature effects on emission efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes
S.F.C. Silva, M. Foschini, H.S. Silva, J.R. Tozoni, F.A. Castro, R. A. Silva, A. Marletta
Organic Electronics 13 (2012) 2935-2939

On the origin of exciton formation in dye doped Alq3 OLEDs
J. A. Gómez, F. A. Castro, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli and C. F. O. Graeff
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, (2012) DOI: 10.1007/s00339-012-6957-8

Wire-bar coating of semiconducting polythiophene / insulating polyethylene blend thin films for organic transistors
C. E. Murphy, L. Yang, S. Ray, L. Yu, S. Knox, N. Stingelin
J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093523 (2011)

High mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors
N. Chaure, A. Cammidge, I. Chambrier, M. Cook, M. Cain, C. Murphy, C. Pal, A. Ray
Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., 12, 025001 (2011)

A metrology perspective on the dark injection transient current method for charge mobility determination in organic semiconductors
T. Esward, S. Knox, H. Jones, P. Brewer, C. Murphy, L. Wright, J. Williams
J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093707 (2011)

Phase-separated thin film structures for efficient polymer blend light-emitting diodes
K. Yim, W. Doherty, W. Salaneck, C. Murphy, R. Friend, J-S. Kim
Nano. Lett. 10, pages 385-392 (2010)

Electrochemical Imaging

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces Using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
W. Kylberg, A. J. Wain, and F. A. Castro
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, pages 17384−17392 (2012)

High Aspect Ratio Needle Probes for Combined Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Atomic Force Microscopy
A. J. Wain, D. Cox, S. Zhou, A. Turnbull
Electrochemistry Communications, 13, pages 78-81 (2011)

Fabrication of Probes for In-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale
A. J. Wain, D. Cox, S. Zhou, A. Turnbull
Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources (eds. T. Bollinghaus, J. Lexow, T, Kishi, M. Kitagawa, Springer, 2012) pages 129-141


Imaging size effects on the electrocatalytic activity of gold nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy
A. J. Wain
Electrochimica Acta, 92, pages 383-391 (2013)

Influence of ultrathin poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film supports on the electrodeposition and electrocatalytic activity of discrete platinum nanoparticles
H. V. Patten, E. Ventosa, A. Colina, V. Ruiz, J. Lopez-Palacios, A. J. Wain, S. C. S. Lai, J. W. Macpherson, P. R. Unwin
J. Solid State Electrochem., 15, pages 2331-2339 (2011)

Fuel Cells

In situ mapping of potential transients during start-up and shut-down of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, E. Brightman, G. Hinds, J. Power Sources, 267, 160-170 (2014)

Parameter sensitivity analysis of cylindrical LiFePO4 battery performance using multi-physics modeling, L.Q. Zhang, C. Lyu, G. Hinds, L.X. Wang, W.L. Luo, J. Zheng, K.H. Ma, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, A762-A776 (2014)

Non-uniform temperature distribution in Li-ion batteries during discharge - A combined thermal imaging, X-ray micro-tomography and electrochemical impedance approach, J.B. Robinson, J.A. Darr, D.S. Eastwood, G. Hinds, P.D. Lee, P.R. Shearing, O.O. Taiwo, D.J.L. Brett, J. Power Sources, 252, 51-57 (2014)

Spatially resolved diagnostic methods for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: a review, C, Kalyvas, A. Kucernak, D. Brett, G. Hinds, S. Atkins, N. Brandon, WIREs Energy Environ., 3, 254-275 (2014)

An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, E.M. Gabreab, G. Hinds, S. Fearn, D. Hodgson, J. Millichamp, P.R. Shearing, D.J.L. Brett, J. Power Sources, 245, 1014-1026 (2014)

Influence of acoustic cavitation on the controlled ultrasonic dispersion of carbon nanotubes, A. Sesis, M. Hodnett, G. Memoli, A.J. Wain, I. Jurewicz, A.B. Dalton, J.D. Carey, G. Hinds, J. Phys. Chem. B, 117, 15141-15150 (2013)

In situ mapping of electrode potential in a PEMFC, G. Hinds, ECS Transactions, 58, 1565-1587 (2013)

In situ measurement of active catalyst surface area in fuel cell stacks, E. Brightman, G. Hinds, R. O'Malley, J. Power Sources, 242, 244-247 (2013)

Humidity, pressure and temperature measurements in an interdigitated-flow PEM hydrogen fuel cell, S. Bell, G. Hinds, M. de Podesta, M. Stevens, J. Wilkinson, Int. J. Thermophys., 33, 1583-1594 (2012)

In situ mapping of electrode potential in a PEM fuel cell, G. Hinds, E. Brightman, Electrochem. Commun., 17, 26-29 (2012)

What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance, D.J.L. Brett, A.R. Kucernak, P. Aguiar, S.C. Atkins, N.P. Brandon, R. Clague, L.F. Cohen, G. Hinds, C. Kalyvas, G.J. Offer, B. Ladewig, R. Maher, A. Marquis, P. Shearing, N. Vasileiadis, V. Vesovic, Chem. Phys. Chem., 11, 2714 (2010)

Electrocatalytic activity mapping of model fuel cell catalyst films by scanning electrochemical microscopy, P. Nicholson, S. Zhou, G. Hinds, A. Wain, A. Turnbull, Electrochimica Acta, 54, 4525-4533 (2009)

Novel in-situ measurements of relative humidity in a PEMFC, G. Hinds, M. Stevens, J. Wilkinson, M. de Podesta, S. Bell, J. Power Sources 186, 52-57 (2009)


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