National Physical Laboratory

Electrochemistry Recent Publications

NPL's multi-disciplinary Electrochemistry team undertakes ground-breaking research in measurement and modelling of electrochemical and charge transfer processes.

Only the most recent publications are shown.


Small and short crack growth and the solution-conductivity dependent electrochemical crack size effect
S. Zhou, M. Lukaszewicz and A. Turnbull
Corros. Sci., 97 (2015) 25-37

Influence of weld preparation procedure and heat tinting on sulphide stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel
L. Wickstroem, G. Hinds and A. Turnbull
Corrosion, 71 (2015) 1036-1047

Novel method for determination of pitting susceptibility in aggressive environments at elevated temperature and pressure
G. Hinds, L, Wickstrom, J. Abda, A. Turnbull, V. Smith and R. Woolam
Corros. Sci., 85 (2014) 33-41

Impact of surface condition on sulphide stress corrosion cracking of 316L stainless steel
G. Hinds, L. Wickström, K. Mingard, A. Turnbull
Corrosion Science, 72 (2013) 43

Environmentally assisted small crack growth
A. Turnbull, S. Zhou and M. Lukaszewicz
Procedia Material Science, 3 (2014) 204-208

Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth
A. Turnbull
Proc. Roy. Soc., A470 (2014) 20142041

The environmentally small/short crack growth effect
A. Turnbull
Corros. Rev., 30, pages 1-17 (2012)

Comparative evaluation of environment induced cracking of conventional and advanced steam turbine blade steels. Part 2: Corrosion fatigue
A. Turnbull and S. Zhou
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 503-512 (2011)

Sensitivity of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel to surface machining and grinding procedure
A. Turnbull, K. Mingard, J. D. Lord, B. Roebuck, D. Tice, K. Mottershead, N. Fairweather and A. Bradbury
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 3398-3415 (2011)

Novel images of the evolution of stress corrosion cracks from corrosion pits
D. A. Horner, B. J. Connolly, S. Zhou, L. Crocker, and A. Turnbull
Corros. Sci., 53, pages 3466-3485 (2011)

New insight into the pit-to-crack transition from finite element analysis of the stress and strain distribution around a corrosion pit
A. Turnbull, L. Wright and L. Crocker
Corros. Sci., 52, pages 1402-1498 (2010)

Novel multi-electrode test method for evaluating inhibition of underdeposit corrosion - Part 1: Sweet conditions
G. Hinds and A. Turnbull
Corrosion, 66, paper no. 046001 (2010)

^ back to top


Environmental Stability of Organic Semiconductors for Use in Optoelectronic Devices
Dibb, G.F.A., J.C. Blakesley, and F.A. Castro
Materials for Energy Infrastructure, W. Udomkichdecha et al, Editors, 2016, Springer Singapore p 73-81

Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests
Gevorgyan, S.A. et al
Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2014, 109(0): p 162-170

Towards reliable charge-mobility benchmark measurements for organic semiconductors
Blakesley, J.C. et al
Organic Electronics, 2014, 15(6): p 1263-1272.

Simulating photoconductive atomic-force microscopy on disordered photovoltaic materials
Blakesley, J.C. and F.A. Castro
Physical Review B, 2015, 91(14)

Worldwide outdoor round robin study of organic photovoltaic devices and modules
Madsen, M.V. et al
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2014, 130, p 281-290

Current landscape of standardisation efforts in organic and printed electronics 2015 - a VAMAS review
Castro, F A
NPL Report MAT 73, April 2015

2D photocurrent and transmission mapping of aqueous dye sensitized solar cells
T.A.G. Risbridger, F.A. Castro, P.J. Cameron
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(42) (2012) 22253-22260

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces Using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
W. Kylberg, A. J. Wain, F.A. Castro
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116 (2012) 17384-17392

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116 (33), pp 17384-17392
DOI: 10.1021/jp304599v

Spatially resolved photocurrent mapping of efficient organic solar cells fabricated on a woven mesh electrode
W. Kylberg, F. A. Castro, P. Chabrecek, T. Geiger, J. Heier, P. G. Nicholson, F. Nuesch, E. Theocharous, U. Sonderegger, R. Hany
Progress in Photovoltaics, DOI: 10.1002/pip.1242

Oligothiophene dendron-decorated squaraine dyes: Synthesis, thin film formation, and performance in organic solar cells
W. Kylberg, Y. Zhang, A. Aebersold, F.A. Castro, T. Geiger, J. Heier, Simon Kuster, C.-Q. Ma, P. Bäuerle, F. Nüesch,J.-N. Tisserant, R. Hany
Organic Electronics 13, 1204-1212 (2012)

Challenges found when patterning semiconducting polymers with electric fields for organic solar cell applications
F. A. Castro, F. Nüesch, C. Walder, R. Hany
Journal of Nanomaterials, (2012) in press

Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends
A. Cuenat, A. Muñiz-Piniella, M. Muñoz-Rojo, W. C Tsoi, C. E Murphy
Nanotechnology 23, 045703 (2012)

^ back to top

Organic Electronics

Meniscus Confined Fabrication of Multidimensional Conducting Polymer Nanostructures with Scanning Electrochemical Cell Microscopy
K. McKelvey, M. A. O'Connell and P. R. Unwin
Chemical Communications, 2013, 49, 2986

Molecular relaxation temperature effects on emission efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes
S.F.C. Silva, M. Foschini, H.S. Silva, J.R. Tozoni, F.A. Castro, R. A. Silva, A. Marletta
Organic Electronics 13 (2012) 2935-2939

On the origin of exciton formation in dye doped Alq3 OLEDs
J. A. Gómez, F. A. Castro, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli and C. F. O. Graeff
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, (2012) DOI: 10.1007/s00339-012-6957-8

Wire-bar coating of semiconducting polythiophene / insulating polyethylene blend thin films for organic transistors
C. E. Murphy, L. Yang, S. Ray, L. Yu, S. Knox, N. Stingelin
J. Appl. Phys. 110, 093523 (2011)

High mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors
N. Chaure, A. Cammidge, I. Chambrier, M. Cook, M. Cain, C. Murphy, C. Pal, A. Ray
Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., 12, 025001 (2011)

A metrology perspective on the dark injection transient current method for charge mobility determination in organic semiconductors
T. Esward, S. Knox, H. Jones, P. Brewer, C. Murphy, L. Wright, J. Williams
J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093707 (2011)

Phase-separated thin film structures for efficient polymer blend light-emitting diodes
K. Yim, W. Doherty, W. Salaneck, C. Murphy, R. Friend, J-S. Kim
Nano. Lett. 10, pages 385-392 (2010)

^ back to top

Electrochemical Imaging

Electrochemical Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide Generation at Individual Gold Nanoparticles
M. A. O’Connell , J. R. Lewis and A. J. Wain
Chemical Communications, (2015) 51, 10314-10317

Combined Electrochemical-Topographical Imaging: A Critical Review
M. A. O’Connell, A. J. Wain
Analytical Methods, (2015) 7, 6983-6999

Nanoscale Mapping of Catalytic Activity Using Tip enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
N. Kumar, B. Stephanidis, R. Zenobi, A. J. Wain and D. Roy
Nanoscale (2015) 7, 7133-7137

Mapping Electroactivity at Individual Catalytic Nanostructures using High Resolution SECM-SICM
M. A. O’Connell, A. J. Wain
Analytical Chemistry, (2014) 86, 12100−12107

Scanning electrochemical microscopy for combinatorial screening applications: A mini-reviewA
A. J. Wain
Electrochemistry Communications, (2014) 46, 9-12

High-Resolution Electrochemical and Topographical Imaging Using Batch-Fabricated Cantilever Probes
J. Wain, A. J. Pollard, C. Richter
Analytical Chemistry, (2014) 86, 5143−5149

Semi-hydrogenation of Alkynes at Single Crystal, Nanoparticle and Biogenic Nanoparticle Surfaces:  the Role of Defects in Lindlar-Type Catalysts and the Origin of their Selectivity
G. A. Attard, J. A. Bennett, I. Mikheenko, P. Jenkins, S. Guan, L. E. Macaskie, J. Wood, A. J. Wain
Faraday Discussions, (2013) 162, 57-75

Imaging size effects on the electrocatalytic activity of gold nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy
A. J. Wain
Electrochimica Acta, (2013) 92, 383-391

A New View of Electrochemistry at Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG)
A. N. Patel, M. Guille Collignon, M. A. O'Connell, W. O. Y. Hung, K. McKelvey, J. V. Macpherson, and P. R. Unwin
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, 134, 20117

Scanning Electrochemical Cell Microscopy: Theory and Experiment for Quantitative High Resolution Spatially-Resolved Voltammetry and Simultaneous Ion-Conductance Measurements
M. E. Snowden, A. G. Güell, S. C. S. Lai, K. McKelvey, N. Ebejer, M. A. O'Connell, A. W. Colburn, and P. R. Unwin
Analytical Chemistry, 2012, 84, 2483

Screening of Photoactive Dyes on TiO2 Surfaces Using Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
W. Kylberg, A. J. Wain, and F. A. Castro
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, pages 17384−17392 (2012)

High Aspect Ratio Needle Probes for Combined Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Atomic Force Microscopy
A. J. Wain, D. Cox, S. Zhou, A. Turnbull
Electrochemistry Communications, 13, pages 78-81 (2011)

Fabrication of Probes for In-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale
A. J. Wain, D. Cox, S. Zhou, A. Turnbull
Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources (eds. T. Bollinghaus, J. Lexow, T, Kishi, M. Kitagawa, Springer, 2012) pages 129-141

^ back to top


Positionable Vertical Microfluidic Cell Based on Electromigration in a Theta Pipet
M. A. O’Connell, M.E. Snowden, K. McKelvey, F. Gayet, I. Shirley, D. M. Haddleton and P. R. Unwin
Langmuir, 2014, 30, 10011

Imaging size effects on the electrocatalytic activity of gold nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy
Electrochimica Acta, 92, pages 383-391 (2013)

Influence of ultrathin poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film supports on the electrodeposition and electrocatalytic activity of discrete platinum nanoparticles
H. V. Patten, E. Ventosa, A. Colina, V. Ruiz, J. Lopez-Palacios, A. J. Wain, S. C. S. Lai, J. W. Macpherson, P. R. Unwin
J. Solid State Electrochem., 15, pages 2331-2339 (2011)

^ back to top

Fuel Cells

In situ mapping of potential transients during start-up and shut-down of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, E. Brightman, G. Hinds, J. Power Sources, 267, 160-170 (2014)

Parameter sensitivity analysis of cylindrical LiFePO4 battery performance using multi-physics modeling, L.Q. Zhang, C. Lyu, G. Hinds, L.X. Wang, W.L. Luo, J. Zheng, K.H. Ma, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, A762-A776 (2014)

Non-uniform temperature distribution in Li-ion batteries during discharge - A combined thermal imaging, X-ray micro-tomography and electrochemical impedance approach, J.B. Robinson, J.A. Darr, D.S. Eastwood, G. Hinds, P.D. Lee, P.R. Shearing, O.O. Taiwo, D.J.L. Brett, J. Power Sources, 252, 51-57 (2014)

Spatially resolved diagnostic methods for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: a review, C, Kalyvas, A. Kucernak, D. Brett, G. Hinds, S. Atkins, N. Brandon, WIREs Energy Environ., 3, 254-275 (2014)

An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, E.M. Gabreab, G. Hinds, S. Fearn, D. Hodgson, J. Millichamp, P.R. Shearing, D.J.L. Brett, J. Power Sources, 245, 1014-1026 (2014)

Influence of acoustic cavitation on the controlled ultrasonic dispersion of carbon nanotubes, A. Sesis, M. Hodnett, G. Memoli, A.J. Wain, I. Jurewicz, A.B. Dalton, J.D. Carey, G. Hinds, J. Phys. Chem. B, 117, 15141-15150 (2013)

In situ mapping of electrode potential in a PEMFC, G. Hinds, ECS Transactions, 58, 1565-1587 (2013)

In situ measurement of active catalyst surface area in fuel cell stacks, E. Brightman, G. Hinds, R. O'Malley, J. Power Sources, 242, 244-247 (2013)

Humidity, pressure and temperature measurements in an interdigitated-flow PEM hydrogen fuel cell, S. Bell, G. Hinds, M. de Podesta, M. Stevens, J. Wilkinson, Int. J. Thermophys., 33, 1583-1594 (2012)

In situ mapping of electrode potential in a PEM fuel cell, G. Hinds, E. Brightman, Electrochem. Commun., 17, 26-29 (2012)

What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance, D.J.L. Brett, A.R. Kucernak, P. Aguiar, S.C. Atkins, N.P. Brandon, R. Clague, L.F. Cohen, G. Hinds, C. Kalyvas, G.J. Offer, B. Ladewig, R. Maher, A. Marquis, P. Shearing, N. Vasileiadis, V. Vesovic, Chem. Phys. Chem., 11, 2714 (2010)

Electrocatalytic activity mapping of model fuel cell catalyst films by scanning electrochemical microscopy, P. Nicholson, S. Zhou, G. Hinds, A. Wain, A. Turnbull, Electrochimica Acta, 54, 4525-4533 (2009)

Novel in-situ measurements of relative humidity in a PEMFC, G. Hinds, M. Stevens, J. Wilkinson, M. de Podesta, S. Bell, J. Power Sources, 186, 52-57 (2009)

^ back to top

Thermoelectrics and Electrothermals

Angela Dawson, Martin Rides, Antony S Maxwell, Alexandre Cuenat, Anthony R Samano (2015), Scanning thermal microscopy techniques for polymeric thin films using temperature contrast mode to measure thermal diffusivity and a novel approach in conductivity contrast mode to the mapping of thermally conductive particles, doi:10.1016/j.polymertesting.2014.11.008

Alexandre Cuenat and Ekaterina Selezneva (2015), European Metrology Project for III-V Materials Based High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells, MRS Proceedings, 1771, mrss15-2138026 doi:10.1557/opl.2015.390

The EMRP project' Metrology for III-V materials based high efficiency multi-junction solar cells', Bounouh, A. ; Almuneau, G. ; Baumgartner, H. ; Cuenat, A. ; Gambacorti, N. ; Hoffmann, J. ; Kern, R. ; Kienberger, F. ; Krupka, J. ; Lackner, D. ; Pollakowski, B. ; Rodriguez, T.G. ; Sametoglu, F. ; Usydus, L. ; Winter, S. ; Witt, F. (2014) pp 318 - 319

Electrical transport at the nanoscale: Scanning Spreading Resistance, Scanning Capacitance and Scanning Kelvin Probe, Cuenat, A. ; Muniz-Piniella, A. (2014) pp 220 - 221

Angela Dawson, Martin Rides, Alexandre Cuenat, Laurie Winkless (2013), Micro-and Nano-scale Measurement of the Thermophysical Properties of Polymeric Materials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, May 2013, 34, 5, pp 865-882

Alexandre Cuenat, Andrés Muñiz-Piniella, Miguel Muñoz-Rojo, Wing C Tsoi, Craig E Murphy (2012), Nanotechnology, 23, 4


Please note that the information will not be divulged to third parties, or used without your permission