National Physical Laboratory

Graham Machin

Current interests

Graham Machin

Graham Machin's current research interests include contact and non-contact thermometry, high temperature fixed-points, thermal imaging, primary thermometry (radiometry and acoustic thermometry), clinical thermometry (contact, non-contact and internal), thermocouple developments (including self-validation methods), reliable temperature measurements in hostile environments, especially space/aerospace and nuclear decommissioning, and applied thermal metrology in medical applications such as wound monitoring and prevention.

Graham also promotes NPL's activities through public lectures, especially on its leading role in the recent redefinition of the international system of units (the SI).


Graham joined the Temperature Group at NPL in 1991, after completing his DPhil at the University of Oxford on the Physics of Compact Stellar Binary Systems. He has published over 210 papers on temperature-related issues and has given numerous invited lectures around the world. He is currently the coordinator of the EMPIR 'Implementing the new kelvin 2' project and of the EMPIR 'Realising the redefined kelvin' project (starts Sep 2019). Graham has worked twice as an invited guest researcher at NMIJ (Japan) and four times at NIM (China). He is the NPL representative on the BIPM Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT), chair of the CCT working group on non-contact thermometry and the CCT working group on strategy. He contributed to the redefinition of the kelvin at CCT through the work of the CCT taskforce for the kelvin redefinition. He was the immediate past chair of the EURAMET Technical Committee (TC) of Thermometry (2014–2018) and continues to serve on the EURAMET TC-T Strategy Group. In addition he has served on the council of the Institute of Measurement and Control (2013–2015); and on the EPSRC Physical Sciences Advisory Team (2014–2017). He acts as expert advisor at the Brunel University Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Liquid Metal Engineering (LiME), and is the International reviewer of the major Chinese project lead from CAS-TIPC 'International Reference Temperature Measurement Research in Very Low Temperature Areas' (2017–2022). He was the joint International Programme Chair for Tempmeko '16, organised and led a Royal Society Discussion Meeting, 'Implementing the new kelvin' (proceedings published Mar 2016), and served on the organising committee of the IMEKO World Congress '18. He is currently serving on the International Programme Committee of Tempmeko/Tempbejing 2019.

Graham is a Fellow of both the Institute of Physics (CPhys) and the Institute of Measurement and Control (CEng). He currently holds visiting professorships at University of South Wales (Clinical Thermal Imaging) and the University of Strathclyde (Applied thermometry in harsh environments), and is 'Colaborador Honorifico' at the University of Valladolid (UVa), Spain. He was a contributing editor to the two-volume work 'Radiometric Temperature Measurement' published by Elsevier in 2010, and has contributed chapters to a number of books, including one on the 'History of temperature scales' in the IOP book 'Precise dimensions' (Nov 2017). In October 2012, he received the InstMC Callendar Medal award for improvements to the state of the art in temperature measurement; and in June 2015, a DSc from the University of Birmingham for a thesis entitled 'Improvements in Temperature Measurement'. In 2017, Graham was awarded a Chinese Academy of Sciences Fellowship, in recognition of his world-leading position in and decadal contributions to the science of thermometry. Graham is President of the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC), the professional body of the automation, instrumentation, control and related industries, from January 2018 to December 2019, and this appointment is in recognition of the contributions Graham has made to the promotion of metrology within the UK and internationally.

Selected recent publications

  • Machin, G., Fischer, J., Moldover, M., Saunders, J., Trusler, M., White, R., 'Towards implementing the new kelvin', Measurement, 74, pp 113–115 (2015)
  • Machin, G., Anhalt, K., Battuello, M., Bourson, F., Dekker, P., Diril, A., Edler, F., Elliott, C., Girard, F., Greenen, A., Kňazovická, L., Lowe, D., Pavlásek, P., Pearce, J., Sadli, M., Strnad, R., Seifert, M., Vuelban E. M., 'The research outcomes of the European Metrology Research Programme Project:  HiTeMS – High Temperature Measurement Solutions for Industry', Measurement, 78, pp 168–179 (2016)
  • Fellmuth, B., Fischer, J., Machin, G., Picard, S., Steur, P., Tamura, O., White, R., Yoon H., 'The kelvin redefinition and its mise en pratique', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150037 (2016)
  • Sadli, M., Machin, G., et. al. 'Realisation and dissemination of thermodynamic temperatures above the silver point', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150043 (2016)
  • Anhalt, K., Machin, G., 'Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150041 (2016)
  • Machin, G., Engert, J., Gavioso, R., Sadli, M., Woolliams, E., 'Summary of achievements of the EMRP project implementing the new kelvin (InK)', Measurement, 94, 149–156 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2016.07.069
  • Dong, W., Machin, G., Lowe, D., Wang, T., Davis, H., Lu, X., Robinson, J., Yuan, Z., Bloembergen, P., 'Investigation of tunable ternary high-temperature fixed points based on platinum-carbon-X as comparison artefacts of unknown temperature between NIM and NPL', Meas. Sci. & Technol.,, 27, 115010, (6 pp), 2016 doi:10.1088/0957-0233/27/11/115010
  • Machin, G., Whittam, A., Ainarkar, S., Allen, J., Bevans, J., Edmonds, M., Kluwe, B., MacDonald, A., Petrova, N., Plassmann, P., Ring, F., Simpson, R., 'A thermal imaging system for the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration', Physiol. Meas., 38, pp 420–430 (2017)
  • Machin, G., 'The Kelvin redefined', Meas. Sci. Technol., 29 , 022001 (11 pp) (2018)
  • Petrova, N., Whittam, A. MacDonald, A., Ainarkar, S., Donaldson, A., Bevans, J., Allen, J., Plassmann, P., Kluwe, B., Ring, F., Rogers, L., Simpson, R., Machin, G., Edmonds, M., 'Reliability of a novel thermal imaging system for temperature assessment of healthy feet', Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 11:22 (2018)
  • McMillan, J.L., Greenen, A., Bond, W., Hayes, M., Simpson, R., Sutton, G., Machin, Jowsey, J., Adamska, A, 'Thermometry of intermediate level waste containers using phosphor thermometry and thermal imaging', Measurement, 132, 207–212 (2019)

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Contact details

Tel: 020 8943 6742

Last Updated: 7 Jan 2019
Created: 7 Feb 2012


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