National Physical Laboratory

Graham Machin

Current interests

Graham Machin

Graham Machin's current research interests include contact and non-contact thermometry, high temperature fixed-points, thermal imaging, primary thermometry (radiometry and acoustic thermometry), clinical thermometry (contact, non-contact and internal), thermocouple developments (including self-validation methods), reliable temperature measurements in hostile environments, especially space/aerospace and nuclear decommissioning, and metrology for wound management and prevention.


Graham Machin joined the Temperature Group at NPL in 1991, after completing his DPhil at the University of Oxford on the Physics of Compact Stellar Binary Systems. He has published over 200 papers on temperature-related issues and has given numerous invited lectures around the world. Graham has worked twice as an invited guest researcher at NMIJ (Japan) and four times at NIM (China). He is the NPL representative on the BIPM Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT), chair of the CCT working group on non-contact thermometry and a member of the CCT taskforce for the kelvin redefinition and the CCT working group on strategy. He also chairs the EURAMET Technical Committee (TC) of Thermometry (2014–2018); served on the council of the Institute of Measurement and Control (2013–2015); and on the EPSRC Physical Sciences Advisory Team (2014–2017). He acts as expert advisor at the Brunel University Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Liquid Metal Engineering (LiME), the University of Birmingham EPSRC CDT in Physical Sciences for Health Training Programme, and is the International reviewer of the major Chinese project lead from CAS-TIPC 'International Reference Temperature Measurement Research in Very Low Temperature Areas' (2017–2022). He was the joint International Programme Chair for Tempmeko '16, organised and led a Royal Society Discussion Meeting, 'Implementing the new kelvin' (proceedings published Mar 2016), and currently serves on the organising committee of the IMEKO World Congress '18.

Graham is a Fellow of both the Institute of Physics (CPhys) and the Institute of Measurement and Control (CEng). He currently holds visiting professorships at University of South Wales (Clinical Thermal Imaging) and the University of Strathclyde (Applied thermometry in harsh environments), and is 'Colaborador Honorifico' at the University of Valladolid (UVa), Spain. He was a contributing editor to the two-volume work 'Radiometric Temperature Measurement' published by Elsevier in 2010, and has contributed chapters to a number of books, including one on the 'History of temperature scales' in the IOP book 'Precise dimensions' (pub Nov 2017). In October 2012, he received the InstMC Callendar Medal award for improvements to the state of the art in temperature measurement; and in June 2015, a DSc from the University of Birmingham for a thesis entitled 'Improvements in Temperature Measurement'. In 2017, Graham was awarded a Chinese Academy of Sciences Fellowship, in recognition of his world-leading position in and decadal contributions to the science of thermometry

Graham is President of the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC), the professional body of the automation, instrumentation, control and related industries, from January 2018 to December 2020, and this appointment is in recognition of the contributions Graham has made to the promotion of metrology within the UK and internationally.

Selected recent publications

  • Machin, G., Whittam, A., Ainarkar, S., Allen, J., Bevans, J., Edmonds, M., Kluwe, B., MacDonald, A., Petrova, N., Plassmann, P., Ring, F., Simpson, R., 'A thermal imaging system for the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration', Physiol. Meas.; (Accepted for publication: 2017)
  • Dong, W., Lowe, D., Machin, G., Bloembergen, P., Wang, T., Lu, X., 'Investigation of the furnace effect in cobalt-carbon high-temperature fixed-point cells', Measurement, 106, 88–94 (2017);
  • Da Silva, R., Pearce J.V., Machin, G., 'A systematic evaluation of contemporary impurity correction methods in ITS-90 aluminium fixed point cells', Metrologia, 54, pp 365–380 (2017);
  • Machin, G., Anhalt, K., Battuello, M., Bourson, F., Dekker, P., Diril, A., Edler, F., Elliott, C., Girard, F., Greenen, A., Kňazovická, L., Lowe, D., Pavlásek, P., Pearce, J., Sadli, M., Strnad, R., Seifert, M., Vuelban E. M., 'The research outcomes of the European Metrology Research Programme Project: HiTeMS – High Temperature Measurement Solutions for Industry', Measurement, 78, pp 168–179; (2016)
  • Fellmuth, B., Fischer, J., Machin, G., Picard, S., Steur, P., Tamura, O., White, R., Yoon H., 'The kelvin redefinition and its mise en pratique', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150037; (2016)
  • Underwood, R., Sutton, G., de Podesta, M., Stanger, L., Rusby, R., Harris, P., Morantz, P., Machin, G., 'Estimates of the difference between thermodynamic temperature and the ITS-90 in the range 118 K to 303 K', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150048; (2016)
  • Anhalt, K., Machin, G., 'Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry', Phil. Trans R. Soc. A., 374: 20150041; (2016)
  • Bloembergen, P., Battuello, M., Girard, F., Machin, G., Wright, L., 'On the Correction of the Melting Curve of the Eutectic Co-C for the Effect of the Thermal Inertia of the Furnace', Int J. Thermophys., 37, pp 1–23; doi 10.1007/s10765-016-2048-y (2016)
  • Petrova, N., MacDonald, A., Ainarkar, S., Plassmann, P., Ring, F., Simpson, R., Bevans, J., Allen, J., Machin, G., Edmonds, M., 'Infrared thermometry reveals no differences of the skin temperatures at the plantar, dorsal, medial and lateral sites between the right foot and left foot in healthy volunteers', Diabetic Medicine,33 (Suppl 1), pp 35–196, (2016)
  • Machin, G., Engert, J., Gavioso, R., Sadli, M., Woolliams, E., 'Summary of achievements of the EMRP project implementing the new kelvin (InK)', Measurement, 94, pp 149–156 (2016); doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2016.07.069

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Last Updated: 10 Jan 2018
Created: 7 Feb 2012


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